Articles for University of Washington PhD Letter on main post


Department of Bioengineering, Box 355061

Seattle, WA 98195-7962


April 12, 2010

To whom it may concern,

I am writing to express my opinion and concern on the possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency radiation from wireless transmitters and transmission antennae (e.g., AM and FM radio, and TV transmission).

The level (intensity) of radiation from a transmitter that one would be exposed to is very low, mainly because of the distance from the transmitter. The level is generally considered to be harmless. Most research in this area deals with radiation of much higher levels. However, some recent studies have suggested that exposure to similar in intensity to those from cellular phone base station transmitters is not completely safe. A list of biological studies on low-level effects (within the levels of exposure less than 200 ft from a transmitter) is attached with this letter. Many of these studies reported effects, e.g., brain cell damage, DNA damage, learning deficit., that could potentially lead to serious adverse health effects.

Furthermore, when considering the health effect of radiation from wireless transmitters, one has to consider the effect of long-term exposure. People who live close to transmitters are constantly being exposed to the radiation for months or years. Even though the level is low, it would matter if the effects of radiofrequency radiation turn out to be cumulative (i.e., add up over time). Small doses cumulate over a long period of time will eventually lead to harmful effects. Most of the studies in the attached list only investigated short term exposure effects and little is known about long-term exposure.

Therefore, exposure of the general public to radiofrequency radiation from wireless transmitters should be limited to a minimal. Broadcast antennae should be located at a significant distance from populated areas, schools, day care centers, and hospitals.


Henry Lai, Ph.D.

Research Professor

Department of Bioengineering, Box 355061

University of Washington

Seattle, WA 98195-5061


Telephone: 1-206-543-1071

FAX: 1-206-685-3925


Studies reporting biological effects of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) at low intensities

(1) Balode (1996)- blood cells from cows from a farm close and in front of a radar showed significantly higher level of severe genetic damage.

(2) Belyaev et al. (2005)- cell phone radiation at SAR of 0.037 W/kg caused genetic changes in human white blood cells.

(3) Belyaev et al. (2009)- cell phone radiation at SAR of 0.0037 W/kg affects DNA repair mechanism in human white blood cells.

(4) Boscol et al. (2001)- RFR from radio transmission stations (0.005 mW/cm2) affected immunological system in women.

(5) Capri et al. (2004)- cell phone radiation at SAR range of 0.070 – 0.076 W/kg affected cell proliferation and membrane chemistry.

(6) Chiang et al. (1989)- people lived and worked near AM radio antennae and radar installations showed deficits in psychological and short-term memory tests. Effects observed at exposure above 0.01 mW/cm2 for more than one year.

(7) de Pomerai et al. (2000, 2002)- reported an increase in a molecular stress response in cells after exposure to a RFR at a SAR of 0.001 W/kg. This stress response is a basic biological process that is present in almost all animals - including humans.

(8) de Pomerai et al. (2003)- RFR damages proteins at 0.015-0.020 W/kg.

(9) D'Inzeo et al. (1988)- very low intensity RFR (0.002 – 0.004 mW/cm2) affected the operation of acetylcholine-related ion-channels in cells. These channels play important roles in physiological and behavioral functions.

(10) Dolk et al. (1997)- a significant increase in adult leukemias was found in residence who lived near the Sutton Coldfield television (TV) and frequency modulation (FM) radio transmitter in England.

(11) Dutta et al. (1989)- reported an increase in calcium efflux in cells after exposure to RFR at 0.005 W/kg. Calcium is an important component of normal cellular functions.

(12) Eger et al. (2004)- increase in cancer risk of people lived in the proximity of a cell phones tower.

(13) Fesenko et al. (1999)- reported a change in immunological functions in mice after exposure to RFR at a power density of 0.001 mW/cm2.

(14) Forgacs et a. (2006)- repeated exposure to cell phone radiation at SAR of 0.018-0.023 W/kg caused an increase in serum testosterone in mice.

(15) Ha et al. (2003)- increase in cancer rate in people who lived within 2 km of a AM radio transmitter.

(16) Ha et al. (2007)- increase in childhood leukemia within 2 km of AM radio transmitters.

(17) Hjollund et al. (1997)- sperm counts of Danish military personnel, who operated mobile ground-to-air missile units that use several RFR emitting radar systems (maximal mean exposure 0.01 mW/cm2), were significantly low compared to references.

(18) Hocking et al. (1996)- an association was found between increased childhood leukemia incidence and mortality and proximity to TV towers.

(19) Ivaschuk et al. (1999)- short-term exposure to cellular phone RFR of very low SAR (0.026 W/kg) affected a gene related to cancer.

(20) Jech et al. (2001)- cell phone radiation at SAR of 0.06 W/kg improved cognitive function in humans.

(21) Kesari and Behari (2008)- double strand DNA breaks observed in brain cells of rats exposed to RFR at SAR of 0.0008 W/kg.

(22) Kolodynski and Kolodynska (1996)- school children lived in front of a radio station had less developed memory and attention, their reaction time was slower, and their neuromuscular apparatus endurance was decreased.

(23) Kwee et al. (2001)- 20 minutes of cell phone RFR exposure at 0.0021 W/kg increased stress protein in human cells.

(24) Lebedeva et al. (2000)- brain wave activation was observed in human subjects exposed to cellular phone RFR at 0.06 mW/cm2.

(25) Lerchl et al. (2008)- chronic exposure to cell phone radiation at SAR of 0.08 W/kg caused metabolic changes in hamsters.

(26) Loscher and Kas (1998)- exposure to radiation from a radio transmission antenna caused abnormal behaviors in a dairy cow herd.

(27) Magras and Xenos (1999)- reported a decrease in reproductive function in mice exposed to RFR at power densities of 0.000168 - 0.001053 mW/cm2.

(28) Makova et al. (2005)- cell phone radiation at SAR of 0.037 W/kg affects chromatin conformation in human white blood cells.

(29) Mann et al. (1998)- a transient increase in blood cortisol was observed in human subjects exposed to cellular phone RFR at 0.02 mW/cm2. Cortisol is a hormone involved in stress reaction.

(30) Marinelli et al. (2004)- exposure to 900-MHz RFR at 0.0035 W/kg affected cell’s self-defense responses.

(31) Michelozzi et al. (1998)- leukemia mortality within 3.5 km (5,863 inhabitants) near a high power radio-transmitter in a peripheral area of Rome was higher than expected.

(32) Michelozzi et al. (2002)- childhood leukemia higher at a distance up to 6 km from a radio station.

(33) Navakatikian and Tomashevskaya (1994)- RFR at low intensities (0.01 - 0.1 mW/cm2; 0.0027- 0.027 W/kg) induced behavioral and endocrine changes in rats. Decreases in blood concentrations of testosterone and insulin were reported.

(34) Nittby et al. (2007)- long term exposure to cell phone radiation (SAR 0.0006 – 0.06 W/kg) reduced memory functions in rats.

(35) Novoselova et al. (1999)-low intensity RFR (0.001 mW/cm2) affected functions of the immune system.

(36) Novoselova et al. (2004)- chronic exposure to RFR (0.001 mW/cm2) decreased tumor growth rate and enhanced survival in mice.

(37) Park et al. (2004)- higher mortality rates for all cancers and leukemia in some age groups in the area near AM radio broadcasting towers.

(38) Pérez-Castejón et al. (2009)- Cancer cells exposed to 9.6 GHz field at SAR of 0.0004 W/kg increased proliferation rate.

(39) Persson et al. (1997)- reported an increase in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in mice exposed to RFR at 0.0004 - 0.008 W/kg. The blood-brain barrier envelops the brain and protects it from toxic substances.

(40) Phillips et al. (1998)- reported DNA damage in cells exposed to RFR at SAR of 0.0024 - 0.024 W/kg.

(41) Polonga-Moraru et al. (2002)- change in membrane of cells in the retina (eye) after exposure to RFR at 15 W/cm2.

(42) Pyrpasopoulou et al. (2004)- exposure to cell phone radiation during early gestation at SAR of 0.0005 W/kg (5 W/cm2) affected kidney development in rats.

(43) Roux et al. (08a) - 900 MHz field at 0.007 mW/cm2 affected gene expression and energy metabolism in tomato.

(44) Roux et al. (08b)- 900 MHz field at 0.007 mW/cm2 affected energy metabolism in plants.

(45) Salford et al. (2003)- nerve cell damage in brain of rats exposed for 2 hrs to GSM signal at 0.02 W/kg.

(46) Santini et al. (2002)- increase in complaint frequencies for tiredness, headache, sleep disturbance, discomfort, irritability, depression, loss of memory, dizziness, libido decrease, in people who lived within 300 m of mobile phone base stations.

(47) Sarimov et al. (2004)- cell phone microwaves affected human lymphocyte chromatin similar to stress response at 0.0054 W/kg.

(48) Schwartz et al. (1990)- calcium movement in the heart affected by RFR at SAR of 0.00015 W/kg. Calcium is important in muscle contraction. Changes in calcium can affect heart functions.

(49) Schwarz et al. (2008)- cell phone radiation at SAR of 0.05 W/kg affects genes in human cells.

(50) Somosy et al. (1991)- RFR at 0.024 W/kg caused molecular and structural changes in cells of mouse embryos.

(51) Stagg et al. (1997)- glioma cells exposed to cellular phone RFR at 0.0059 W/kg showed significant increases in thymidine incorporation, which may be an indication of an increase in cell division.

(52) Stankiewicz et al. (2006)- cell phone radiation at SAR of 0.024 W/kg affected immune activities of white blood cells.

(53) Stark et al. (1997)- a two- to seven-fold increase of salivary melatonin concentration was observed in dairy cattle exposed to RFR from a radio transmitter antenna.

(54) Tattersall et al. (2001)- low-intensity RFR (0.0016 - 0.0044 W/kg) modulated the function of a part of the brain called the hippocampus, in the absence of gross thermal effects. The changes in excitability may be consistent with reported behavioral effects of RFR, since the hippocampus is involved in learning and memory.

(55) Vangelova et al. (2002)- operators of satellite station exposed to low dose (0.1127 J/kg) of RFR over a 24-hr shift showed an increased excretion of stress hormones.

(56) Velizarov et al. (1999)- showed a decrease in cell proliferation (division) after exposure to RFR of 0.000021 - 0.0021 W/kg.

(57) Veyret et al. (1991)- low intensity RFR at SAR of 0.015 W/kg affected functions of the immune system.

(58) Vian et al. (2009)- 900 MHz field at 0.007 mW/cm2 affected stress gene expression in plants.

(59) Wolke et al. (1996)- RFR at 0.001W/kg affected calcium concentration in heart muscle cells of guinea pigs.

(60) Yurekli et al. (2006)- cell phone radiation at SAR of 0.0113 W/kg affected free radical chemistry in the rat.

Source of literature and abstracts:

(1) Balode, Z, Assessment of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation by the micronucleus test in bovine peripheral erythrocytes. Sci Total Environ 180(1):81-85, 1996.

Previous bioindicative studies in the Skrunda Radio Location Station area have focused on the somatic influence of electromagnetic radiation on plants, but it is also important to study genetic effects. We have chosen cows as test animals for cytogenetical evaluation because they live in the same general exposure area as humans, are confined to specific locations and are chronically exposed to radiation. Blood samples were obtained from female Latvian Brown cows from a farm close to and in front of the Skrunda Radar and from cows in a control area. A simplified alternative to the Schiff method of DNA staining for identification of micronuclei in peripheral erythrocytes was applied. Microscopically, micronuclei in peripheral blood erythrocytes were round in shape and exhibited a strong red colour. They are easily detectable as the only coloured bodies in the uncoloured erythrocytes. From each individual animal 2000 erythrocytes were examined at a magnification of x 1000 for the presence of micronuclei. The counting of micronuclei in peripheral erythrocytes gave low average incidences, 0.6 per 1000 in the exposed group and 0.1 per 1000 in the control, but statistically significant (P < 0.01) differences were found in the frequency distribution between the control and exposed groups.

(2) Belyaev IY, Hillert L, Protopopova M, Tamm C, Malmgren LO, Persson BR, Selivanova G, Harms-Ringdahl M. 915 MHz microwaves and 50 Hz magnetic field affect chromatin conformation and 53BP1 foci in human lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy persons. Bioelectromagnetics. 26(3):173-184, 2005.

We used exposure to microwaves from a global system for mobile communication (GSM) mobile phone (915 MHz, specific absorption rate (SAR) 37 mW/kg) and power frequency magnetic field (50 Hz, 15 muT peak value) to investigate the response of lymphocytes from healthy subjects and from persons reporting hypersensitivity to electromagnetic field (EMF). The hypersensitive and healthy donors were matched by gender and age and the data were analyzed blind to treatment condition. The changes in chromatin conformation were measured with the method of anomalous viscosity time dependencies (AVTD). 53BP1 protein, which has been shown to colocalize in foci with DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), was analyzed by immunostaining in situ. Exposure at room temperature to either 915 MHz or 50 Hz resulted in significant condensation of chromatin, shown as AVTD changes, which was similar to the effect of heat shock at 41 degrees C. No significant differences in responses between normal and hypersensitive subjects were detected. Neither 915 MHz nor 50 Hz exposure induced 53BP1 foci. On the contrary, a distinct decrease in background level of 53BP1 signaling was observed upon these exposures as well as after heat shock treatments. This decrease correlated with the AVTD data and may indicate decrease in accessibility of 53BP1 to antibodies because of stress-induced chromatin condensation. Apoptosis was determined by morphological changes and by apoptotic fragmentation of DNA as analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). No apoptosis was induced by exposure to 50 Hz and 915 MHz microwaves. In conclusion, 50 Hz magnetic field and 915 MHz microwaves under specified conditions of exposure induced comparable responses in lymphocytes from healthy and hypersensitive donors that were similar but not identical to stress response induced by heat shock.

(3) Belyaev IY, Markovà E, Hillert L, Malmgren LO, Persson BR. Microwaves from UMTS/GSM mobile phones induce long-lasting inhibition of 53BP1/gamma-H2AX DNA repair foci in human lymphocytes. Bioelectromagnetics. 30(2):129-141, 2009.

We have recently described frequency-dependent effects of mobile phone microwaves (MWs) of global system for mobile communication (GSM) on human lymphocytes from persons reporting hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields and healthy persons. Contrary to GSM, universal global telecommunications system (UMTS) mobile phones emit wide-band MW signals. Hypothetically, UMTS MWs may result in higher biological effects compared to GSM signal because of eventual "effective" frequencies within the wideband. Here, we report for the first time that UMTS MWs affect chromatin and inhibit formation of DNA double-strand breaks co-localizing 53BP1/gamma-H2AX DNA repair foci in human lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy persons and confirm that effects of GSM MWs depend on carrier frequency. Remarkably, the effects of MWs on 53BP1/gamma-H2AX foci persisted up to 72 h following exposure of cells, even longer than the stress response following heat shock. The data are in line with the hypothesis that the type of signal, UMTS MWs, may have higher biological efficiency and possibly larger health risk effects compared to GSM radiation emissions. No significant differences in effects between groups of healthy and hypersensitive subjects were observed, except for the effects of UMTS MWs and GSM-915 MHz MWs on the formation of the DNA repair foci, which were different for hypersensitive (P < 0.02[53BP1]//0.01[gamma-H2AX]) but not for control subjects (P > 0.05). The non-parametric statistics used here did not indicate specificity of the differences revealed between the effects of GSM and UMTS MWs on cells from hypersensitive subjects and more data are needed to study the nature of these differences.

(4) Boscol P, Di Sciascio MB, D'Ostilio S, Del Signore A, Reale M, Conti P, Bavazzano P, Paganelli R, Di Gioacchino M. Effects of electromagnetic fields produced by radiotelevision broadcasting stations on the immune system of women. Sci Total Environ 273(1-3):1-10, 2001.

The object of this study was to investigate the immune system of 19 women with a mean age of 35 years, for at least 2 years (mean = 13 years) exposed to electromagnetic fields (ELMFs) induced by radiotelevision broadcasting stations in their residential area. In September 1999, the ELMFs (with range 500 KHz-3 GHz) in the balconies of the homes of the women were (mean +/- S.D.) 4.3 +/- 1.4 V/m. Forty-seven women of similar age, smoking habits and atopy composed the control group, with a nearby resident ELMF exposure of < 1.8 V/m. Blood lead and urinary trans-trans muconic acid (a metabolite of benzene), markers of exposure to urban traffic, were higher in the control women. The ELMF exposed group showed a statistically significant reduction of blood NK CD16+-CD56+, cytotoxic CD3(-)-CD8+, B and NK activated CD3(-)-HLA-DR+ and CD3(-)-CD25+ lymphocytes. 'In vitro' production of IL-2 and interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of the ELMF exposed group, incubated either with or without phytohaemoagglutinin (PHA), was significantly lower; the 'in vitro' production of IL-2 was significantly correlated with blood CD16+-CD56+ lymphocytes. The stimulation index (S.I.) of blastogenesis (ratio between cell proliferation with and without PHA) of PBMC of ELMF exposed women was lower than that of the control subjects. The S.I. of blastogenesis of the ELMF exposed group (but not blood NK lymphocytes and the 'in vitro' production of IL-2 and INF-gamma by PBMC) was significantly correlated with the ELMF levels. Blood lead and urinary trans-trans muconic acid were barely correlated with immune parameters: the urinary metabolite of benzene of the control group was only correlated with CD16+-CD56+ cells indicating a slight effect of traffic on the immune system. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that high frequency ELMFs reduce cytotoxic activity in the peripheral blood of women without a dose-response effect.

(5) Capri M, Scarcella E, Fumelli C, Bianchi E, Salvioli S, Mesirca P, Agostini C, Antolini A, Schiavoni A, Castellani G, Bersani F, Franceschi C. In vitro exposure of human lymphocytes to 900 MHz CW and GSM modulated radiofrequency: studies of proliferation, apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential. Radiat Res. 162(2):211-218, 2004. .

The aim of this study was to investigate the nonthermal effects of radiofrequency (RF) fields on human immune cells exposed to a Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) signal generated by a commercial cellular phone and by a sinusoidal non-modulated signal. To assess whether mobile phone RF-field exposure affects human immune cell functions, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors were exposed in vitro to a 900 MHz GSM or continuous-wave (CW) RF field 1 h/day for 3 days in a transverse electromagnetic mode (TEM) cell system (70-76 mW/kg average specific absorption rate, SAR). The cells were cultured for 48 or 72 h, and the following end points were studied: (1) mitogen-induced proliferation; (2) cell cycle progression; (3) spontaneous and 2-deoxy-D-ribose (dRib)-induced apoptosis; (4) mitochondrial membrane potential modifications during spontaneous and dRib-induced-apoptosis. Data obtained from cells exposed to a GSM-modulated RF field showed a slight decrease in cell proliferation when PBMCs were stimulated with the lowest mitogen concentration and a slight increase in the number of cells with altered distribution of phosphatidylserine across the membrane. On the other hand, cell cycle phases, mitochondrial membrane potential and susceptibility to apoptosis were found to be unaffected by the RF field. When cells were exposed to a CW RF field, no significant modifications were observed in comparison with sham-exposed cells for all the end points investigated.

(6) Chiang H, Yao GD, Fang QS, Wang KQ, Lu DZ, Zhou YK, Health effects of environmental electromagnetic fields. J. Bioelectricity 8:127-131, 1989.

We investigated the effects of exposure to environmental electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in 1170 subjects. Neutrophil phagocytosis was enhanced in the low-intensity exposure groups, but reduced significantly at relatively higher intensities. Visual reaction time was prolonged and the scores of short-term memory tests were lower in some high-intensity exposure groups. EMFs may affect the central nervous and immune systems in man.

(7) de Pomerai D, Daniells C, David H, Allan J, Duce I, Mutwakil M, Thomas D, Sewell P, Tattersall J, Jones D, Candido P, Non-thermal heat-shock response to microwaves, Nature 405:417-418, 2000.

Nematode worms (C. elegans) exposed overnight to 750-MHz microwaves at a SAR of 0.001 W/kg showed an increased in heat shock proteins (HSPs). (Heat shock proteins are induced in most organisms by adverse conditions (such as heat or toxins) that cause damage to cellular proteins, acting as molecular chaperones to rescue damaged proteins). The authors give several arguments that the microwave-induced effect on HSPs is non-thermal and suggest that ‘current exposure limits for microwave equipment may need to be reconsidered.’

de Pomerai DI, Dawe A, Djerbib L, Allan, Brunt G, Daniells C. Growth and maturation of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans following exposure to weak microwave fields. Enzyme Microbial Tech 30:73-79, 2002.

Prolonged exposure to weak microwave fields (750¯1000 MHz, 0.5 W) at 25°C induces a heat-shock response in transgenic C. elegans strains carrying hsp16 reporter genes [1]. A comparable response to heat alone requires a substantially higher temperature of 28°C, suggesting that microwave heating of worms or of the system as a whole might provide a sufficient explanation, although this can be ruled out by indirect arguments [1]. Here we investigate two further biological consequences of prolonged microwave exposure at 25°C in synchronised cultures of wild-type worm larvae, namely alterations in (i) growth rate (GR) and (ii) the proportion of worms later maturing into egg-bearing adults (MP). Both of these parameters are significantly increased following microwave exposure (GR by 8¯11%, and MP by 28¯40%), whereas both are significantly decreased (GR by 10% and MP almost abolished) after mild heat treatment at 28°C for the same period. It follows that the biological consequences of microwave exposure are opposite to, and therefore incompatible with, those attributable to mild heating. This evidence does not in itself necessitate a non-thermal mechanism, but does eliminate explanations that invoke the bulk heating of tissues by microwaves. This latter, however, remains the sole basis for current regulations governing microwave exposure.

(8) de Pomerai DI, Smith B, Dawe A, North K, Smith T, Archer DB, Duce IR, Jones D, Candido EP. Microwave radiation can alter protein conformation without bulk heating. FEBS Lett 22;543(1-3):93-97, 2003.

Exposure to microwave radiation enhances the aggregation of bovine serum albumin in vitro in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. Microwave radiation also promotes amyloid fibril formation by bovine insulin at 60 degrees C. These alterations in protein conformation are not accompanied by measurable temperature changes, consistent with estimates from field modelling of the specific absorbed radiation (15-20 mW kg(-1)). Limited denaturation of cellular proteins could explain our previous observation that modest heat-shock responses are induced by microwave exposure in Caenorhabditis elegans. We also show that heat-shock responses both to heat and microwaves are suppressed after RNA interference ablating heat-shock factor function.

(9) D'Inzeo G, Bernardi P, Eusebi F, Grassi F, Tamburello C, Zani BM, Microwave effects on acetylcholine-induced channels in cultured chick myotubes. Bioelectromagnetics 9(4):363-372, 1988.

The behavior of cultured myotubes from chick embryos exposed to microwaves has been experimentally analyzed. Recordings of acetylcholine-induced currents have been obtained via patch-clamp techniques using both cell-attached (single-channel current recording) and whole-cell (total current recording) configurations. During the exposure to low-power microwaves the frequency of the ACh-activated single channel openings decreased, while the ACh-induced total current showed a faster falling phase. Channel open time and conductance were not affected by microwave irradiation. It is concluded that the exposure to microwaves increases the rate of desensitization and decreases the channel opening probability. The nonthermal origin and the molecular interaction mechanisms governing these electromagnetic-induced effects are discussed.

(10) Dolk H, Shaddick G, Walls P, Grundy C, Thakrar B, Kleinschmidt I, Elliott P, Cancer incidence near radio and television transmitters in Great Britain. I. Sutton Coldfield transmitter. Am J Epidemiol 145(1):1-9, 1997.

A small area study of cancer incidence in 1974-1986 was carried out to investigate an unconfirmed report of a "cluster" of leukemias and lymphomas near the Sutton Coldfield television (TV) and frequency modulation (FM) radio transmitter in the West Midlands, England. The study used a national database of postcoded cancer registrations, and population and socioeconomic data from the 1981 census. Selected cancers were hematopoietic and lymphatic, brain, skin, eye, male breast, female breast, lung, colorectal, stomach, prostate, and bladder. Expected numbers of cancers in small areas were calculated by indirect standardization, with stratification for a small area socioeconomic index. The study area was defined as a 10 km radius circle around the transmitter, within which 10 bands of increasing distance from the transmitter were defined as a basis for testing for a decline in risk with distance, and an inner area was arbitrarily defined for descriptive purposes as a 2 km radius circle. The risk of adult leukemia within 2 km was 1.83 (95% confidence interval 1.22-2.74), and there was a significant decline in risk with distance from the transmitter (p = 0.001). These findings appeared to be consistent over the periods 1974-1980, 1981-1986, and were probably largely independent of the initially reported cluster, which appeared to concern mainly a later period. In the context of variability of leukemia risk across census wards in the West Midlands as a whole, the Sutton Coldfield findings were unusual. A significant decline in risk with distance was also found for skin cancer, possibly related to residual socioeconomic confounding, and for bladder cancer. Study of other radio and TV transmitters in Great Britain is required to put the present results in wider context. No causal implications can be made from a single cluster investigation of this kind.

(11) Dutta SK, Ghosh B, Blackman CF, Radiofrequency radiation-induced calcium ion efflux enhancement from human and other neuroblastoma cells in culture. Bioelectromagnetics 1989;10(2):197-202.

To test the generality of radiofrequency radiation-induced changes in 45Ca2+ efflux from avian and feline brain tissues, human neuroblastoma cells were exposed to electromagnetic radiation at 147 MHz, amplitude-modulated (AM) at 16 Hz, at specific absorption rates (SAR) of 0.1, 0.05, 0.01, 0.005, 0.001, and 0.0005 W/kg. Significant 45Ca2+ efflux was obtained at SAR values of 0.05 and 0.005 W/kg. Enhanced efflux at 0.05 W/kg peaked at the 13-16 Hz and at the 57.5-60 Hz modulation ranges. A Chinese hamster-mouse hybrid neuroblastoma was also shown to exhibit enhanced radiation-induced 45Ca2+ efflux at an SAR of 0.05 W/kg, using 147 MHz, AM at 16 Hz. These results confirm that amplitude-modulated radiofrequency radiation can induce responses in cells of nervous tissue origin from widely different animal species, including humans. The results are also consistent with the reports of similar findings in avian and feline brain tissues and indicate the general nature of the phenomenon.

(12) Eger H, Hagen KU, Lucas B, Vogel P, Voit H. the influence of being physically near to a cell phone transmission mast on the incidence of cancer. Published in Umwelt•Medizin•Gesellschaft 17,4, 2004, as: ‘Einfluss der räumlichen Nähe von Mobilfunksendeanlagen auf die Krebsinzidenz’

Following the call by Wolfram König, President of the Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz (Federal Agency for radiation protection), to all doctors of medicine to collaborate actively in the assessment of the risk posed by cellular radiation, the aim of our study was to examine whether people living close to cellular transmitter antennas were exposed to a heightened risk of taking ill with malignant tumors. The basis of the data used for the survey were PC files of the case histories of patients between the years 1994 and 2004. While adhering to data protection, the personal data of almost 1,000 patients were evaluated for this study, which was completed without any external financial support. It is

intended to continue the project in the form of a register. The result of the study shows that the proportion of newly developing cancer cases was significantly higher among those patients who had lived during the past ten years at a distance of up to 400 metres from the cellular transmitter site, which has been in operation since 1993, compared to those patients living further away, and that the patients fell ill on average 8 years earlier. In the years 1999-2004, ie after five years’ operation of the transmitting installation, the relative risk of getting cancer had trebled for the residents of the area in the proximity of the installation compared to the inhabitants of Naila outside the area.

(13) Fesenko, EE, Makar, VR, Novoselova, EG, Sadovnikov, VB, Microwaves and cellular immunity. I. Effect of whole body microwave irradiation on tumor necrosis factor production in mouse cells. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 49(1):29-35, 1999.

Whole body microwave sinusoidal irradiation of male NMRI mice with 8.15-18 GHz (1 Hz within) at a power density of 1 microW/cm2 caused a significant enhancement of TNF production in peritoneal macrophages and splenic T lymphocytes. Microwave radiation affected T cells, facilitating their capacity to proliferate in response to mitogenic stimulation. The exposure duration necessary for the stimulation of cellular immunity ranged from 5 h to 3 days. Chronic irradiation of mice for 7 days produced the decreasing of TNF production in peritoneal macrophages. The exposure of mice for 24 h increased the TNF production and immune proliferative response, and these stimulatory effects persisted over 3 days after the termination of exposure. Microwave treatment increased the endogenously produced TNF more effectively than did lipopolysaccharide, one of the most potential stimuli of synthesis of this

cytokine. The role of microwaves as a factor interfering with the process of cell immunity is discussed.

(14) Forgacs Z, Somosy Z, Kubinyi G, Bakos J, Hudak A, Surjan A, Thuroczy G. Effect of whole-body 1800MHz GSM-like microwave exposure on testicular steroidogenesis and histology in mice. Reprod Toxicol. 22:111-117, 2006.

The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible effects of whole-body 1800MHz GSM-like microwave exposure on male reproduction. After repeated exposure of mice to microwaves at 0.018-0.023W/kg whole-body specific energy absorption rate (SAR) an elevated serum testosterone level was measured, but no microwave exposure related histopathological alteration could be detected in the reproductive organs. The in vitro steroidogenic response of 48h Leydig cell cultures obtained from exposed animals did not differ from the controls, suggesting that Leydig cells were not the primary targets of the applied microwave exposure or direct action of microwaves on Leydig cells was temporary only. In exposed animals the red blood cell count and volume of packed red cells were also increased. Further investigations are required to clarify the mechanism of action of the applied microwave exposure on male mice, as well as to establish the biological significance of the observed phenomena.

(15) Ha M, Lim HJ, Cho SH, Choi HD, Cho KY. Incidence of cancer in the vicinity of Korean AM radio transmitters. Arch Environ Health. 58(12):756-762, 2003.

Results of various studies have indicated a potential association between exposures to electrical and/or magnetic fields and risks of various cancers. The authors used a cross-sectional ecological study design to investigate such a potential association. In areas proximate to 42 amplitude modulated (AM) radio transmitters, 11 high-power study sites (i.e., areas exposed to 100-1500-kW transmission power) and 31 low-power study sites (i.e., areas exposed to 50-kW transmission power) were identified. The incidence of cancer within a 2-km radius of each transmitter was obtained from (a) Korean medical-insurance data for the years 1993 through 1996, (b) population census data for the year 1995, and (c) resident registration data for the year 1995. The authors calculated age-standardized rate ratios for total cancer, leukemia, malignant lymphoma, brain cancer, and breast cancer, and compared the incidence of cancer within 2 km of the high-power transmitters vs. the incidence within 2 km of the low-power transmitters. Four control areas for each high-power transmitter were also selected. The control areas were located in the same, or nearest adjacent, province as the high-power sites, but were at least 2 km from any of the transmitters. Indirect standardized observed/expected ratios for the high-power sites vs. control areas were calculated for each transmitter separately, and for 4 transmitter groupings defined by power level (i.e., 100 kW, 250 kW, 500 kW, and 1500 kW). The authors found no significant increase in age-standardized rate ratios of cancers for high-power vs. low-power sites, with the exceptions of total cancer and of brain cancer in women. Among the 11 high-power sites, there were significantly increased incidences of leukemia in 2 areas and of brain cancer in 1 area. Future studies should incorporate additional detailed exposure assessments and a strong analytical study design to explore the possible association between radiofrequency radiation from AM radio transmitters and cancer.

(16) Ha M, Im H, Lee M, Kim HJ, Kim BC, Gimm YM, Pack JK. Radio-frequency radiation exposure from AM radio transmitters and childhood leukemia and brain cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 166(3):270-279, 2007.

Leukemia and brain cancer patients under age 15 years, along with controls with respiratory illnesses who were matched to cases on age, sex, and year of diagnosis (1993-1999), were selected from 14 South Korean hospitals using the South Korean Medical Insurance Data System. Diagnoses were confirmed through the South Korean National Cancer Registry. Residential addresses were obtained from medical records. A newly developed prediction program incorporating a geographic information system that was modified by the results of actual measurements was used to estimate radio-frequency radiation (RFR) exposure from 31 amplitude modulation (AM) radio transmitters with a power of 20 kW or more. A total of 1,928 leukemia patients, 956 brain cancer patients, and 3,082 controls were analyzed. Cancer risks were estimated using conditional logistic regression adjusted for residential area, socioeconomic status, and community population density. The odds ratio for all types of leukemia was 2.15 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 4.67) among children who resided within 2 km of the nearest AM radio transmitter as compared with those resided more than 20 km from it. For total RFR exposure from all transmitters, odds ratios for lymphocytic leukemia were 1.39 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.86) and 1.59 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.11) for children in the second and third quartiles, respectively, versus the lowest quartile. Brain cancer and infantile cancer were not associated with AM RFR.

(17) Hjollund NH, Bonde JP, Skotte J, Semen analysis of personnel operating military radar equipment. Reprod Toxicol 11(6):897, 1997.

This is a preliminary survey of semen quality among Danish military personnel operating mobile ground-to-air missile units that use several microwave emitting radar systems. The maximal mean exposure was estimated to be 0.01 mW/cm2. The median sperm density of the military personnel was significantly low compared to the references. The difference is either due to chance, uncontrolled bias, or nonthermal effects of transitory microwaves.

(18) Hocking B, Gordon IR, Grain HL, Hatfield GE, Cancer incidence and mortality and proximity to TV towers. Med J Aust 165(11-12):601-605, 1996.

(Published erratum appears in Med J Aust 166(2):80, 1997.)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is an increased cancer incidence and mortality in populations exposed to radiofrequency radiations from TV towers. DESIGN: An ecological study comparing cancer incidence and mortality, 1972-1990, in nine municipalities, three of which surround the TV towers and six of which are further away from the towers. (TV radiofrequency radiation decreases with the square of the distance from the source.) Cancer incidence and mortality data were obtained from the then Commonwealth Department of Human Services and Health. Data on frequency, power, and period of broadcasting for the three TV towers were obtained from the Commonwealth Department of Communications and the Arts. The calculated power density of the radiofrequency radiation in the exposed area ranged from 8.0 microW/cm2 near the towers to 0.2 microW/cm2 at a radius of 4km and 0.02 microW/cm2 at 12 km. SETTING: Northern Sydney, where three TV towers have been broadcasting since 1956. OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate ratios for leukaemia and brain tumour incidence and mortality, comparing the inner with the outer areas. RESULTS: For all ages, the rate ratio for total leukaemia incidence was 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.40). Among children, the rate ratio for leukaemia incidence was 1.58 (95% CI, 1.07-2.34) and for mortality it was 2.32 (95% CI, 1.35-4.01). The rate ratio for childhood lymphatic leukaemia (the most common type) was 1.55 (95% CI, 1.00-2.41) for incidence and 2.74 (95% CI, 1.42-5.27) for mortality. Brain cancer incidence and mortality were not increased. CONCLUSION: We found an association between increased childhood leukaemia incidence and mortality and proximity to TV towers.

(19) Ivaschuk OI, Jones RA, Ishida-Jones T, Haggren W, Adey WR, Phillips JL, Exposure of nerve growth factor-treated PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells to a modulated radiofrequency field at 836.55 MHz: effects on c-jun and c-fos expression. Bioelectromagnetics 18(3):223-229, 1997.

Rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells have been treated with nerve growth factor

And then exposed to athermal levels of a packet-modulated radiofrequency field

At 836.55 MHz. This signal was produced by a prototype time-domain multiple-access (TDMA) transmitter that conforms to the North American digital cellular

telephone standard. Three slot average power densities were used: 0.09, 0.9,

and 9 mW/cm2. Exposures were for 20, 40, and 60 min and included an

intermittent exposure regimen (20 min on/20 min off), resulting in total incubation times of 20, 60, and 100 min, respectively. Concurrent controls were sham exposed. After extracting total cellular RNA, Northern blot analysis was used to assess the expression of the immediate early genes, c-fos and c-jun, in all cell populations. No change in c-fos transcript levels were detected after 20 min exposure at each field intensity (20 min was the only time period at which c-fos message could be detected consistently). Transcript levels for c-jun were altered only after 20 min exposure to 9 mW/cm2 (average 38% decrease).

(20) Jech R, Sonka K, Ruzicka E, Nebuzelsky A, Bohm J, Juklickova M, Nevsimalova S. Electromagnetic field of mobile phones affects visual event related potential in patients with narcolepsy. Bioelectromagnetics 22(7):519-528, 2001.

The effects of the mobile phone (MP) electromagnetic fields on electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERP) were examined. With regard to the reported effects of MP on sleep, 22 patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy were exposed or sham exposed for 45 min to the MP (900 MHz, specific absorption rate 0.06 W/kg) placed close to the right ear in a double blind study. There were no changes of the EEG recorded after the MP exposure. A subgroup of 17 patients was studied on visual ERP recorded during the MP exposure. Using an adapted "odd-ball" paradigm, each patient was instructed to strike a key whenever rare target stimuli were presented. There were three variants of target stimuli (horizontal stripes in (i) left, (ii) right hemifields or (iii) whole field of the screen). The exposure enhanced the positivity of the ERP endogenous complex solely in response to target stimuli in the right hemifield of the screen (P < 0.01). The reaction time was shortened by 20 ms in response to all target stimuli (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the electromagnetic field of MP may suppress the excessive sleepiness and improve performance while solving a monotonous cognitive task requiring sustained attention and vigilance.

(21) Kesari KK, Behari J. Fifty-gigahertz Microwave Exposure Effect of Radiations on Rat Brain. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2008 Dec 17. [Epub ahead of print]

The object of this study is to investigate the effects of 50-GHz microwave radiation on the brain of Wistar rats. Male rats of the Wistar strain were used in the study. Animals of 60-day age were divided into two groups-group 1, sham-exposed, and group 2, experimental (microwave-exposed). The rats were housed in a temperature-controlled room (25 degrees C) with constant humidity (40-50%) and received food and water ad libitum. During exposure, rats were placed in Plexiglas cages with drilled ventilation holes and kept in an anechoic chamber. The animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 45 days continuously at a power level of 0.86 muW/cm(2) with nominal specific absorption rate 8.0 x 10(-4) w/kg. After the exposure period, the rats were killed and homogenized, and protein kinase C (PKC), DNA double-strand break, and antioxidant enzyme activity [superoxides dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] were estimated in the whole brain. Result shows that the chronic exposure to these radiations causes DNA double-strand break (head and tail length, intensity and tail migration) and a significant decrease in GPx and SOD activity (p = <0.05) in brain cells, whereas catalase activity shows significant increase in the exposed group of brain samples as compared with control (p = <0.001). In addition to these, PKC decreased significantly in whole brain and hippocampus (p < 0.05). All data are expressed as mean +/- standard deviation. We conclude that these radiations can have a significant effect on the whole brain.

(22) Kolodynski AA, Kolodynska VV, Motor and psychological functions

of school children living in the area of the Skrunda Radio Location

Station in Latvia. Sci Total Environ 180(1):87-93, 1996.

This paper presents the results of experiments on school children living in the

area of the Skrunda Radio Location Station (RLS) in Latvia. Motor function,

memory and attention significantly differed between the exposed and control

groups. Children living in front of the RLS had less developed memory and

attention, their reaction time was slower and their neuromuscular apparatus

endurance was decreased.

(23) Kwee S, Raskmark P, Velizarov P. Changes in cellular proteins due to environmental non-ionizing radiation. I. Heat-shock proteins. Electro- and Magnetobiology 20: 141-152, 2001.

This paper describes the effect of weak microwave fields on the amounts of heat-shock proteins in cell cultures at various temperatures. The field was generated by signal simulation of the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) of 960 Mhz, used in portable phones. Transformed human epithelial amnion (AMA) cells, growing on glass coverslips, were exposed in a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell to a microwave field, generating a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2.1−1 in the cells. Exposure temperatures were 35, 37, and 40 ± 0.1°C, respectively, and the exposure time was 20 min. The heat-shock proteins Hsp-70 and Hsp-27 were detected by immuno-fluorescence. Higher amounts of Hsp-70 were present in the cells exposed at 35 and 37°C than in the sham-exposed cells. These effects can be considered to be athermal, since the field strength was much lower than the safety standard for absence of heat generation by microwave fields. There was no significant response in the case of Hsp-27.

(24) Lebedeva NN, Sulimov AV, Sulimova OP, Kotrovskaya TI, Gailus T,

Cellular phone electromagnetic field effects on bioelectric activity of human brain. Crit Rev Biomed Eng 28(1-2):323-337, 2000.

24 volunteers participated in the experiments. The investigation of EEG reactions to cellular phone (EMF frequency 902.4 MHz and intensity 0.06 mW/cm2) was conducted. Two experiments were performed with each subject--cellular phone exposure and Placebo Duration of the experiment was 60 min: 15 min--background; 15 min--EMF exposure or Placebo; 30 min—after exposure. EEG was recorded in 16 standard leads with "eyes open" and "eyes closed". Special software with non-linear dynamics was developed for EEG analyses. One parameter, multichannel (global) correlation dimension, was calculated. The changes of these parameters can be evidence of brain functional state changes. As a result of EEG record processing, a significant increase of global correlation dimension during the exposure and after exposure period was discovered, more pronounced in the case of "eyes closed". That can be viewed as the manifestation of cortex activation under phone EMF exposure.

(25) Lerchl A, Krüger H, Niehaus M, Streckert JR, Bitz AK, Volkert Hansen V Effects of mobile phone electromagnetic fields at nonthermal SAR values on melatonin and body weight of Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) J Pineal Res 44:267-272, 2008.

Abstract: In three experiments, adult male Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) were exposed 24 hr/day for 60 days to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) at 383, 900, and 1800 MHz, modulated according to the TETRA (383 MHz) and GSM standards (900 and 1800 MHz), respectively. A radial waveguide system ensured a well defined and uniform exposure at whole-body averaged specific absorption rates of 80 mW/kg, which is equal to the upper limit of whole-body exposure of the general population in Germany and other countries. For each experiment, using two identical waveguides, hamsters were exposed (n = 120) and sham-exposed (n = 120) in a blind fashion. In all experiments, pineal and serum melatonin levels as well as the weights of testes, brain, kidneys, and liver were not affected. At 383 MHz, exposure resulted in a significant transient increase in body weight up to 4%, while at 900 MHz this body weight increase was more pronounced (up to 6%) and not transient. At 1800 MHz, no effect on body weight was seen. The results corroborate earlier findings which have shown no effects of RF-EMF on melatonin levels in vivo and in vitro. The data are in accordance with the hypothesis that absorbed RF energy may result in metabolic changes which eventually cause body weight increases in exposed animals. The data support the notion that metabolic effects of RF-EMFs need to be investigated in more detail in future studies.

(26) Loscher W, Kas G. Conspicuous behavioural abnormalities in a dairy cow herd near TV and radio transmiiiting antenna. Pract Vet Surgeon 29:5, 437-444, 1998.

In addition to a considerable reduction of milk yield and increasing occurrences of health problems, behavioural abnormalities that have not yet been examined, have been observed over the last two years in a herd of dairy cows maintained in close proximity to a TV and Radio transmitting antenna.The evaluation of possible factors which could explain the abnormalities in the livestock did not disclose any factors othe rthan the measurable high-frequency electromagnetic fields.An experiment in which a cow with abnormal behaviour was brought to a stable in a different area resulted in normalisation of the cow within five days.

The symptoms returned, however, when the cow was brought back to the stable in close proximity to the antenna in question. In view of the previously known effects of electromagnetic fields it may be possible that the observed abnormalities are related to the electromagnetic field exposure.

(27) Magras, IN, Xenos, TD, RF radiation-induced changes in the prenatal development of mice. Bioelectromagnetics 18(6):455-461, 1997.

The possible effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation on prenatal development has been investigated in mice. This study consisted of RF level measurements and in vivo experiments at several places around an "antenna park." At these locations RF power densities between 168 nW/cm2 and 1053 nW/cm2 were measured. Twelve pairs of mice, divided in two groups, were placed in locations of different power densities and were repeatedly mated five times. One hundred eighteen newborns were collected. They were measured, weighed, and examined macro- and microscopically. A progressive decrease in the number of newborns per dam was observed, which ended in irreversible infertility. The prenatal development of the newborns, however, evaluated by the crown-rump length, the body weight, and the number of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal vertebrae, was improved.

(28) Markovà E, Hillert L, Malmgren L, Persson BR, Belyaev IY. Microwaves from GSM mobile telephones affect 53BP1 and gamma-H2AX foci in human lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy persons. Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Sep;113(9):1172-7.

The data on biologic effects of nonthermal microwaves (MWs) from mobile telephones are diverse, and these effects are presently ignored by safety standards of the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). In the present study, we investigated effects of MWs of Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) at different carrier frequencies on human lymphocytes from healthy persons and from persons reporting hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). We measured the changes in chromatin conformation, which are indicative of stress response and genotoxic effects, by the method of anomalous viscosity time dependence, and we analyzed tumor suppressor p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) and phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX), which have been shown to colocalize in distinct foci with DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), using immunofluorescence confocal laser microscopy. We found that MWs from GSM mobile telephones affect chromatin conformation and 53BP1/gamma-H2AX foci similar to heat shock. For the first time, we report here that effects of MWs from mobile telephones on human lymphocytes are dependent on carrier frequency. On average, the same response was observed in lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy subjects.

(29) Mann, K, Wagner, P, Brunn, G, Hassan, F, Hiemke, C, Roschke, J, Effects of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields on the neuroendocrine system. Neuroendocrinology 67(2):139-144, 1998.

The influence of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields emitted from a circularly polarized antenna on the neuroendocrine system in healthy humans was investigated (900 MHz electromagnetic field, pulsed with 217 Hz, average power density 0.02 mW/cm2). Nocturnal hormone profiles of growth hormone (GH), cortisol, luteinizing hormone (LH) and melatonin were determined under polysomnographic control. An alteration in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity was found with a slight, transient elevation in the cortisol serum level immediately after onset of field exposure which persisted for 1 h. For GH, LH and melatonin, no significant effects were found under exposure to the field compared to the placebo condition, regarding both total hormone production during the entire night and dynamic characteristics of the secretion pattern. Also the evaluation of the sleep EEG data revealed no significant alterations under field exposure, although there was a trend to an REM suppressive effect. The results indicate that weak high-frequency electromagnetic fields have no effects on nocturnal hormone secretion except for a slight elevation in cortisol production which is transient, pointing to an adaptation of the organism to the stimulus.

(30) Marinelli F, La Sala D, Cicciotti G, Cattini L, Trimarchi C, Putti S, Zamparelli A, Giuliani L, Tomassetti G, Cinti C. Exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic field induces an unbalance between pro-apoptotic and pro-survival signals in T-lymphoblastoid leukemia CCRF-CEM cells. J Cell Physiol. 198(2):324-332, 2004.

It has been recently established that low-frequency electromagnetic field (EMFs) exposure induces biological changes and could be associated with increased incidence of cancer, while the issue remains unresolved as to whether high-frequency EMFs can have hazardous effect on health. Epidemiological studies on association between childhood cancers, particularly leukemia and brain cancer, and exposure to low- and high-frequency EMF suggested an etiological role of EMFs in inducing adverse health effects. To investigate whether exposure to high-frequency EMFs could affect in vitro cell survival, we cultured acute T-lymphoblastoid leukemia cells (CCRF-CEM) in the presence of unmodulated 900 MHz EMF, generated by a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell, at various exposure times. We evaluated the effects of high-frequency EMF on cell growth rate and apoptosis induction, by cell viability (MTT) test, FACS analysis and DNA ladder, and we investigated pro-apoptotic and pro-survival signaling pathways possibly involved as a function of exposure time by Western blot analysis. At short exposure times (2-12 h), unmodulated 900 MHz EMF induced DNA breaks and early activation of both p53-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways while longer continuous exposure (24-48 h) determined silencing of pro-apoptotic signals and activation of genes involved in both intracellular (Bcl-2) and extracellular (Ras and Akt1) pro-survival signaling. Overall our results indicate that exposure to 900 MHz continuous wave, after inducing an early self-defense response triggered by DNA damage, could confer to the survivor CCRF-CEM cells a further advantage to survive and proliferate.

(31) Michelozzi P, Ancona C, Fusco D, Forastiere F, Perucci CA, Risk of leukemia and residence near a radio transmitter in Italy. Epidemiology 9 (Suppl) 354 p, 1998.

We conducted a small area study to investigate a cluster of leukemia near a high power radio-transmitter in a peripheral area of Rome. The leukemia mortality within 3.5 km (5,863 inhabitants) was higher than expected (SMR=2.5, 95% confident interval 1.07-4.83); the excess was due to a significant higher mortality among men (7 cases observed, SMR=3.5). The results of the Stone’s test, after adjusting for socio-economic confounding, showed a significant decline in risk with distance from the transmitter only among men (p=0.005), whereas the p-value for both sexes was p=0.07.

(32) Michelozzi P, Capon A, Kirchmayer U, Forastiere F, Biggeri A, Barca A, Perucci CA. Adult and childhood leukemia near a high-power radio station in Rome, Italy. Am J Epidemiol 155(12):1096-1103, 2002.

Some recent epidemiologic studies suggest an association between lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers and residential exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields (100 kHz to 300 GHz) generated by radio and television transmitters. Vatican Radio is a very powerful station located in a northern suburb of Rome, Italy. In the 10-km area around the station, with 49,656 residents (in 1991), leukemia mortality among adults (aged >14 years; 40 cases) in 1987-1998 and childhood leukemia incidence (eight cases) in 1987-1999 were evaluated. The risk of childhood leukemia was higher than expected for the distance up to 6 km from the radio station (standardized incidence rate = 2.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.0, 4.1), and there was a significant decline in risk with increasing distance both for male mortality (p = 0.03) and for childhood leukemia (p = 0.036). The study has limitations because of the small number of cases and the lack of exposure data. Although the study adds evidence of an excess of leukemia in a population living near high-power radio transmitters, no causal implication can be drawn. There is still insufficient scientific knowledge, and new epidemiologic studies are needed to clarify a possible leukemogenic effect of residential exposure to radio frequency radiation.

(33) Navakatikian MA, Tomashevskaya LA, Phasic behavioral and endocrine effects of microwaves of nonthermal intensity. In “Biological Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields, Volume 1," D.O. Carpenter (ed) Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1994, pp.333-342.

Microwaves at nonthermal levels are able to induce behavioral and endocrine changes at low power densities (0.01-0.1 mW/cm2). Our studies have demonstrated several phases of inhibition and activation. We suggest that inhibition of behavior by microwaves has many mechanisms depending on the strength and duration of exposure, and most inhibitory effects from direct actions on the nervous system. Activation, on the other hand, is correlated well with decreases in serum concentrations of testosterone and insulin. CW microwaves, however, have no influence on the secretion of insulin.

(34) Nittby H, Grafström G, Tian DP, Malmgren L, Brun A, Persson BR, Salford LG, Eberhardt J. Cognitive impairment in rats after long-term exposure to GSM-900 mobile phone radiation. Bioelectromagnetics. 29:219-232, 2007

Considering the frequent use of mobile phones, we have directed attention to possible implications on cognitive functions. In this study we investigated in a rat model the long-term effects of protracted exposure to Global System for Mobile Communication-900 MHz (GSM-900) radiation. Out of a total of 56 rats, 32 were exposed for 2 h each week for 55 weeks to radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation at different SAR levels (0.6 and 60 mW/kg at the initiation of the experimental period) emitted by a (GSM-900) test phone. Sixteen animals were sham exposed and eight animals were cage controls, which never left the animal house. After this protracted exposure, GSM-900 exposed rats were compared to sham exposed controls. Effects on exploratory behaviour were evaluated in the open-field test, in which no difference was seen. Effects on cognitive functions were evaluated in the episodic-like memory test. In our study, GSM exposed rats had impaired memory for objects and their temporal order of presentation, compared to sham exposed controls (P = 0.02). Detecting the place in which an object was presented was not affected by GSM exposure. Our results suggest significantly reduced memory functions in rats after GSM microwave exposure (P = 0.02).

(35) Novoselova, EG, Fesenko, EE, Makar, VR, Sadovnikov, VB, Microwaves and cellular immunity. II. Immunostimulating effects of microwaves and naturally occurring antioxidant nutrients. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 49(1):37-41, 1999.

The effect of 8.15-18 GHz (1 Hz within) microwave radiation at a power density

of 1 microW/cm2 on the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production and immune

response was tested. A single 5 h whole-body exposure induced a significant

increase in TNF production in peritoneal macrophages and splenic T cells. The

mitogenic response in T lymphocytes increased after microwave exposure. The

activation of cellular immunity was observed within 3 days after exposure. The

diet containing lipid-soluble nutrients (beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and

ubiquinone Q9) increased the activity of macrophages and T cells from irradiated mice. These results demonstrate that irradiation with low-power density microwaves stimulates the immune potential of macrophages and T cells, and the antioxidant treatment enhances the effect of microwaves, in particular at later terms, when the effect of irradiation is reduced.

(36) Novoselova EG, Ogay VB, Sorokina OV, Glushkova OV, Sinotova OA, Fesenko EE. The production of tumor necrosis factor in cells of tumor-bearing mice after total-body microwave irradiation and antioxidant diet. Electromag. Biol. Med. 23:167-180, 2004.

The effects of repeated treatment with weak microwaves (MW) (8.15–18 GHz, 1 µW/cm2, 1.5 h daily) and diet with antioxidants (AO) ( -carotene, -tocopherol, and ubiquinone Q9) on production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in macrophages and T lymphocytes of healthy and tumor-bearing mice (TBM) were studied. Tumor size and mortality of TBM were also followed. Microwave radiation and antioxidant diet stimulated production of TNF in cells from healthy mice. At early stages, tumor growth induced TNF production in mouse cells; however, this effect decreased as tumors grew. In TBM exposed to MW, TNF production was higher than in unirradiated TBM. Oppositely, AO diet induced TNF production in healthy mice but did not affect TNF secretion in TBM. Accordingly, prolonged treatment of TBM to MW, but not to AO diet, decreased tumor growth rate and increased overall animal longevity. These results suggest that diminished tumor growth rate due to extremely low-level MW exposure of mice carrying tumors, at least in part, was caused by enhancement in TNF production and accumulation of plasma TNF.

(37) Park SK, Ha M, Im H-J. Ecological study on residences in the vicinity of AM radio broadcasting towers and cancer death: preliminary observations in Korea. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 77(6):387-394, 2004.

Objectives Public health concern about the health effects of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) has increased with the increase in public exposure. This study was to evaluate some health effect of RF exposure by the AM radio broadcasting towers in Korea.

Methods We calculated cancer mortality rates using Korean death certificates over the period of 1994–1995 and population census data in ten RF-exposed areas, defined as regions that included AM radio broadcasting towers of over 100 kW, and in control areas, defined as regions without a radio broadcasting tower inside and at least 2 km away from the towers.

Results All cancers-mortality was significantly higher in the exposed areas [direct standardized mortality rate ratio (MRR) =1.29, 95%CI=1.12–1.49]. When grouped by each exposed area and by electrical power, MRRs for two sites of 100 kW, one site of 250 kW and one site of 500 kW, for all subjects, and for one site of 100 kW and two sites of 250 kW, for male subjects, showed statistically significant increases without increasing trends according to the groups of electric power. Leukemia mortality was higher in exposed areas (MRR=1.70, 95% CI=0.84–3.45), especially among young adults aged under 30 years (0–14 years age group, MRR=2.29, 95% CI=1.05–5.98; 15–29 age group, MRR=2.44, 95% CI=1.07–5.24) .

Conclusions We observed higher mortality rates for all cancers and leukemia in some age groups in the area near the AM radio broadcasting towers. Although these findings do not prove a causal link between cancer and RF exposure from AM radio broadcasting towers, it does suggest that further analytical studies on this topic are needed in Korea.

(38) Pérez-Castejón C, Pérez-Bruzón RN, Llorente M, Pes N, Lacasa C, Figols T, Lahoz M, Maestú C, Vera-Gil A, Del Moral A, Azanza MJ. Exposure to ELF-pulse modulated X band microwaves increases in vitro human astrocytoma cell proliferation. Histol Histopathol. 24(12):1551-1561, 2009.

Common concern about the biological effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) is increasing with the expansion of X-band microwaves (MW). The purpose of our work was to determine whether exposure to MW pulses in this range can induce toxic effects on human astrocytoma cells. Cultured astrocytoma cells (Clonetics line 1321N1) were submitted to 9.6 GHz carrier, 90% amplitude modulated by extremely low frequency (ELF)-EMF pulses inside a Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic Mode cell (GTEM-cell). Astrocytoma cultures were maintained inside a GTEM-incubator in standard culture conditions at 37+/-0.1 degrees C, 5% CO2, in a humidified atmosphere. Two experimental conditions were applied with field parameters respectively of: PW 100-120 ns; PRF 100-800 Hz; PRI 10-1.25 ms; power 0.34-0.60 mW; electric field strength 1.25-1.64 V/m; magnetic field peak amplitude 41.4-54.6 microOe. SAR was calculated to be 4.0 x 10-4 W/Kg. Astrocytoma samples were grown in a standard incubator. Reaching 70-80% confluence, cells were transferred to a GTEM-incubator. Experimental procedure included exposed human astrocytoma cells to MW for 15, 30, 60 min and 24 h and unexposed sham-control samples. Double blind method was applied. Our results showed that cytoskeleton proteins, cell morphology and viability were not modified. Statistically significant results showed increased cell proliferation rate under 24h MW exposure. Hsp-70 and Bcl-2 antiapoptotic proteins were observed in control and treated samples, while an increased expression of connexin 43 proteins was found in exposed samples. The implication of these results on increased proliferation is the subject of our current research.

(39) Persson BRR, Salford LG, Brun A, Blood-brain barrier permeability in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields used in wireless communication. Wireless Network 3:455-461, 1997.

Biological effects of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) have been studied in Fischer 344 rats of both sexes. The rats were not anesthetised during the exposure. The brains were perfused with saline for 3-4 minutes, and thereafter perfusion fixed with 4% formaldehyde for 5-6 minutes. Whole coronal sections of the brains were dehydrated and embedded in paraffin and sectioned at 5 micrometers. Albumin and fibinogen were demonstrated immunochemically and classified as normal versus pathological leakage. In the present investigation we exposed male and female Fischer 344 rats in a Transverse Electromagnetic Transmission line camber to microwaves of 915 MHz as continuous wave (CW) and pulse-modulated with different pulse power and at various time intervals. The CW-pulse power varied from 0.001 W to 10 W and the exposure time from 2 min to 960 min. In each experiment we exposed 4-6 rats with 2-4 controls randomly placed in excited and non-excited TEM cells, respectively. We have in total investigated 630 exposed rats at various modulation frequencies and 372 controls. The frequency of pathological rats is significantly increased (P< 0.0001) from 62/372 (ratio 0.17 + 0.02) for control rats to 244/630 (ratio: 0.39 + 0.043) in all exposed rats. Grouping the exposed animals according to the level or specific absorption energy (J/kg) give significant difference in all levels above 1.5 J/kg. The exposure was 915 MHz microwaves either pulse modulated (PW) at 217 Hz with 0.57 ms pulse width, at 50 Hz with 6.6 ms pulse width or continuous wave (CW). The frequency of pathological rats (0.17) among controls in the various groups is not significantly different. The frequency of pathological rats was 170/480 (0.35 + 0.03) among rats exposed to pulse modulated (PW) and 74/149 (0.50 + 0.07) among rats exposed to continuous wave exposure (CW). These results are both highly significantly different to their corresponding controls (p< 0.0001) and the frequency of pathological rats after exposure to pulsed radiation (PW) is significantly less (p< 0.002) than after exposure to continuous wave radiation (CW).

(40) Phillips, J.L., Ivaschuk, O., Ishida-Jones, T., Jones, R.A., Campbell-Beachler, M. and Haggren, W. DNA damage in Molt-4 T- lymphoblastoid cells exposed to cellular telephone radiofrequency fields in vitro. Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 45:103-110, 1998.

Molt-4 T-lymphoblastoid cells have been exposed to pulsed signals at cellular telephone frequencies of 813.5625 MHz (iDEN signal) and 836.55 MHz (TDMA signal). These studies were performed at low SAR (average = 2.4 and 24 microwatt/g for iDEN and 2.6 and 26 microwatt/g for TDMA) in studies designed to look for athermal RF effects. The alkaline comet, or single cell gel electrophoresis, assay was employed to measure DNA single-strand breaks in cell cultures exposed to the radiofrequency (RF) signal as compared to concurrent sham-exposed cultures. Tail moment and comet extent were calculated as indicators of DNA damage. Statistical differences in the distribution of values for tail moment and comet extent between exposed and control cell cultures were evaluated with the Kolmogorov-Smirnoff distribution test. Data points for all experiments of each exposure condition were pooled and analyzed as single groups. It was found that: 1) exposure of cells to the iDEN signal at an SAR of 2.4 microwatt/g for 2 h or 21 h significantly decreased DNA damage; 2) exposure of cells to the TDMA signal at an SAR of 2.6 microwatt/g for 2 h and 21 h significantly decreased DNA damage; 3) exposure of cells to the iDEN signal at an SAR of 24 microwatt/g for 2 h and 21 h significantly increased DNA damage; 4) exposure of cells to the TDMA signal at an SAR of 26 microwatt/g for 2 h significantly decreased DNA damage. The data indicate a need to study the effects of exposure to RF signals on direct DNA damage and on the rate at which DNA damage is repaired.

(41) Pologea-Moraru R, Kovacs E, Iliescu KR, Calota V, Sajin G. The effects of low level microwaves on the fluidity of photoreceptor cell membrane. Bioelectrochemistry 56(1-2):223-225, 2002.

Due to the extensive use of electromagnetic fields in everyday life, more information is required for the detection of mechanisms of interaction and the possible side effects of electromagnetic radiation on the structure and function of the organism.In this paper, we study the effects of low-power microwaves (2.45 GHz) on the membrane fluidity of rod photoreceptor cells. The retina is expected to be very sensitive to microwave irradiation due to the polar character of the photoreceptor cells [Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1273 (1995) 217] as well as to its high water content [Stud. Biophys. 81 (1981) 39].

(42) Pyrpasopoulou A, Kotoula V, Cheva A, Hytiroglou P, Nikolakaki E, Magras IN, Xenos TD, Tsiboukis TD, Karkavelas G. Bone morphogenetic protein expression in newborn rat kidneys after prenatal exposure to radiofrequency radiation. Bioelectromagnetics 25(3):216-227, 2004.

Effects of nonthermal radiofrequency radiation (RFR) of the global system of mobile communication (GSM) cellular phones have been as yet mostly studied at the molecular level in the context of cellular stress and proliferation, as well as neurotransmitter production and localization. In this study, a simulation model was designed for the exposure of pregnant rats to pulsed GSM-like RFR (9.4 GHz), based on the different resonant frequencies of man and rat. The power density applied was 5 microW/cm2, in order to avoid thermal electromagnetic effects as much as possible. Pregnant rats were exposed to RFR during days 1-3 postcoitum (p.c.) (embryogenesis, pre-implantation) and days 4-7 p.c. (early organogenesis, peri-implantation). Relative expression and localization of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) and their receptors (BMPR), members of a molecular family currently considered as major endocrine and autocrine morphogens and known to be involved in renal development, were investigated in newborn kidneys from RFR exposed and sham irradiated (control) rats. Semi-quantitative duplex RT-PCR for BMP-4, -7, BMPR-IA, -IB, and -II showed increased BMP-4 and BMPR-IA, and decreased BMPR-II relative expression in newborn kidneys. These changes were statistically significant for BMP-4, BMPR-IA, and -II after exposure on days 1-3 p.c. (P <.001 each), and for BMP-4 and BMPR-IA after exposure on days 4-7 p.c. (P <.001 and P =.005, respectively). Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization (ISH) showed aberrant expression and localization of these molecules at the histological level. Our findings suggest that GSM-like RFR interferes with gene expression during early gestation and results in aberrations of BMP expression in the newborn. These molecular changes do not appear to affect renal organogenesis and may reflect a delay in the development of this organ. The differences of relative BMP expression after different time periods of exposure indicate the importance of timing for GSM-like RFR effects on embryonic development.

(43) Roux D, Vian A, Girard S, Bonnet P, Paladian F, Davies E, Ledoigt G. High frequency (900 MHz) low amplitude (5 V m-1) electromagnetic field: a genuine environmental stimulus that affects transcription, translation, calcium and energy charge in tomato. Planta. 227(4):883-891, 2008a.

Using an especially-designed facility, the Mode Stirred Reverberation Chamber, we exposed tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. VFN8) to low level (900 MHz, 5 V m(-1)) electromagnetic fields for a short period (10 min) and measured changes in abundance of three specific mRNA soon after exposure. Within minutes of electromagnetic stimulation, stress-related mRNA (calmodulin, calcium-dependent protein kinase and proteinase inhibitor) accumulated in a rapid, large and 3-phase manner typical of an environmental stress response. Accumulation of these transcripts into the polysomal RNA also took place (indicating that the encoded proteins were translated) but was delayed (indicating that newly-synthesized mRNA was not immediately recruited into polysomes). Transcript accumulation was maximal at normal Ca(2+) levels and was depressed at higher Ca(2+), especially for those encoding calcium-binding proteins. Removal of Ca(2+) (by addition of chelating agents or Ca(2+) channel blocker) led to total suppression of mRNA accumulation. Finally, 30 min after the electromagnetic treatment, ATP concentration and adenylate energy charge were transiently decreased, while transcript accumulation was totally prevented by application of the uncoupling reagent, CCCP. These responses occur very soon after exposure, strongly suggesting that they are the direct consequence of application of radio-frequency fields and their similarities to wound responses strongly suggests that this radiation is perceived by plants as an injurious stimulus.

(44) Roux D, Faure C, Bonnet P, Girard S, Ledoigt G, Davies E, Gendraud M, Paladian F, Vian A. A possible role for extra-cellular ATP in plant responses to high frequency, low amplitude electromagnetic field. Plant Signal Behav. 3(6):383-385, 2008b.

In parallel to evoking the accumulation of stress-related transcripts, exposure to low level 900 MHz EMF affected the levels of ATP, the main energy molecule of the cell. Its concentration dropped rapidly (27% after 30 min) in response to EMF exposure, along with a 18% decrease in the adenylate energy charge (AEC), a good marker of cell energy status. One could interpret this decrease in ATP and AEC in a classical way, i.e., as the result of an increase in cellular energy usage, but recent work brings exciting new insights in pointing out a signalling function for ATP, especially in the stress physiology context where it could trigger both reactive oxygen species and calcium movement (this latter being involved in plant responses to EMF exposure). In this addendum, we discuss our results within this new perspective for ATP function.

(45) Salford LG, Brun AR, Eberhardt JL, Malmgren L, Persson BRR, Nerve cell damage in mammalian brain after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones. Environ Health Persp 111(7):881-883, 2003.

The possible risks of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields for the human body is a growing concern for the society. We have earlier shown that weak pulsed microwaves give rise to a significant leakage of albumin through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Now we have investigated whether a pathological leakage over the BBB might be combined with damage to the neurons. Three groups of each 8 rats were exposed for 2 hours to GSM mobile phone electromagnetic fields of different strengths. We found, and present here for the first time, highly significant (p< 0.002) evidence for neuronal damage in both the cortex, the hippocampus and the basal ganglia in the brains of exposed rats.

(46) Santini R, Santini P, Danze JM, Le Ruz P, Seigne M.Study of the health of people living in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations: I. Influence of distance and sex. Pathol Biol (Paris) 50(6):369-373, 2002.

[Article in French]

A survey study using questionnaire was conducted in 530 people (270 men, 260 women) living or not in vicinity of cellular phone base stations, on 18 Non Specific Health Symptoms. Comparisons of complaints frequencies (CHI-SQUARE test with Yates correction) in relation with distance from base station and sex, show significant (p < 0.05) increase as compared to people living > 300 m or not exposed to base station, till 300 m for tiredness, 200 m for headache, sleep disturbance, discomfort, etc. 100 m for irritability, depression, loss of memory, dizziness, libido decrease, etc. Women significantly more often than men (p < 0.05) complained of headache, nausea, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance, depression, discomfort and visual perturbations. This first study on symptoms experienced by people living in vicinity of base stations shows that, in view of radioprotection, minimal distance of people from cellular phone base stations should not be < 300 m.

(47) Sarimov R, Malmgren L.O.G., Markova, E., Persson, B.R.R.. Belyaev, I.Y. Nonthermal GSM microwaves affect chromatin conformation in human lymphocytes similar to heat shock. IEEE Trans Plasma Sci 32:1600-1608, 2004.

Here we investigated whether microwaves (MWs) of Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) induce changes in chromatin conformation in human lymphocytes. Effects of MWs were studied at different frequencies in the range of 895-915 MHz in experiments with lymphocytes from seven healthy persons. Exposure was performed in transverse electromagnetic transmission line cell (TEM-cell) using a GSM test-mobile phone. All standard modulations included 2 W output power in the pulses, specific absorbed rate (SAR) being 5.4 mW/kg. Changes in chromatin conformation, which are indicative of stress response and genotoxic effects, were measured by the method of anomalous viscosity time dependencies (AVTD). Heat shock and treatment with the genotoxic agent camptothecin, were used as positive controls. 30-min exposure to MWs at 900 and 905 MHz resulted in statistically significant condensation of chromatin in lymphocytes from 1 of 3 tested donors. This condensation was similar to effects of heat shock within the temperature window of 40/spl deg/C-44/spl deg/C. Analysis of pooled data from all donors showed statistically significant effect of 30-min exposure to MWs. Stronger effects of MWs was found following 1-h exposure. In replicated experiments, cells from four out of five donors responded to 905 MHz. Responses to 915 MHz were observed in cells from 1 out of 5 donors, p<0.002. Dependent on donor, condensation, 3 donors, or decondensation, 1 donor, of chromatin was found in response to 1-h exposure. Analysis of pooled data from all donors showed statistically significant effect of 1-h exposure to MWs. In cells from one donor, this effect was frequency-dependent (p<0.01). Effects of MWs correlated statistically significantly with effects of heat shock and initial state of chromatin before exposure. MWs at 895 and 915 MHz affected chromatin conformation in transformed lymphocytes. The conclusion-GSM microwaves under specific conditions of exposure affected human lymphocytes similar to stress response. The data suggested that the MW effects differ at various GSM frequencies and vary between donors.

(48) Schwartz JL, House DE, Mealing GA, Exposure of frog hearts to CW or amplitude-modulated VHF fields: selective efflux of calcium ions at 16 Hz. Bioelectromagnetics 11(4):349-358, 1990.

Isolated frog hearts were exposed for 30-min periods in a Crawford cell to a 240-MHz electromagnetic field, either continuous-wave or sinusoidally modulated at 0.5 or 16 Hz. Radiolabeled with calcium (45Ca), the hearts were observed for movement of Ca2+ at calculated SARs of 0.15, 0.24, 0.30, 0.36, 1.50, or 3.00 mW/kg. Neither CW radiation nor radiation at 0.5 Hz, which is close to the beating frequency of the frog's heart, affected movement of calcium ions. When the VHF field was modulated at 16 Hz, a field-intensity-dependent change in the efflux of calcium ions was observed. Relative to control values, ionic effluxes increased by about 18% at 0.3 mW/kg (P less than .01) and by 21% at 0.15 mW/kg (P less than .05), but movement of ions did not change significantly at other rates of energy deposition. These data indicate that the intact myocardium of the frog, akin to brain tissue of neonatal chicken, exhibits movement of calcium ions in response to a weak VHF field that is modulated at 16 Hz.

(49) Schwarz C, Kratochvil E, Pilger A, Kuster N, Adlkofer F, Rüdiger HW. Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (UMTS, 1,950 MHz) induce genotoxic effects in vitro in human fibroblasts but not in lymphocytes. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 81(6):755-767, 2008.

OBJECTIVE: Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) was recently introduced as the third generation mobile communication standard in Europe. This was done without any information on biological effects and genotoxic properties of these particular high-frequency electromagnetic fields. This is discomforting, because genotoxic effects of the second generation standard Global System for Mobile Communication have been reported after exposure of human cells in vitro. METHODS: Human cultured fibroblasts of three different donors and three different short-term human lymphocyte cultures were exposed to 1,950 MHz UMTS below the specific absorption rate (SAR) safety limit of 2 W/kg. The alkaline comet assay and the micronucleus assay were used to ascertain dose and time-dependent genotoxic effects. Five hundred cells per slide were visually evaluated in the comet assay and comet tail factor (CTF) was calculated. In the micronucleus assay 1,000 binucleated cells were evaluated per assay. The origin of the micronuclei was determined by fluorescence labeled anticentromere antibodies. All evaluations were performed under blinded conditions. RESULTS: UMTS exposure increased the CTF and induced centromere-negative micronuclei (MN) in human cultured fibroblasts in a dose and time-dependent way. Incubation for 24 h at a SAR of 0.05 W/kg generated a statistically significant rise in both CTF and MN (P = 0.02). At a SAR of 0.1 W/kg the CTF was significantly increased after 8 h of incubation (P = 0.02), the number of MN after 12 h (P = 0.02). No UMTS effect was obtained with lymphocytes, either unstimulated or stimulated with Phytohemagglutinin. CONCLUSION: UMTS exposure may cause genetic alterations in some but not in all human cells in vitro.

(50) Somosy Z, Thuroczy G, Kubasova T, Kovacs J, Szabo LD, Effects of modulated and continuous microwave irradiation on the morphology and cell surface negative charge of 3T3 fibroblasts. Scanning Microsc 5(4):1145-1155, 1991.

Mouse embryo 3T3 cells were irradiated with 2450 MHz continuous and low frequency (16 Hz) square modulated waves of absorbed energy ranging from 0.0024 to 2.4 mW/g. The low frequency modulated microwave irradiation yielded more morphological cell changes than did the continuous microwave fields of the same intensity. The amount of free negative charges (cationized ferritin binding) on cell surfaces decreased following irradiation by modulated waves but remained unchanged under the effect of a continuous field of the same dose. Modulated waves of 0.024 mW/g dose increased the ruffling activity of the cells, and caused ultrastructural alteration in the cytoplasm. Similar effects were experienced by continuous waves at higher (0.24 and 2.4 mW/g) doses.

(51) Stagg RB, Thomas WJ, Jones RA, Adey WR, DNA synthesis and cell proliferation in C6 glioma and primary glial cells exposed to a 836.55 MHz modulated radiofrequency field. Bioelectromagnetics 18(3):230-236, 1997.

We have tested the hypothesis that modulated radiofrequency (RF) fields may act as a tumor-promoting agent by altering DNA synthesis, leading to increased cell proliferation. In vitro tissue cultures of transformed and normal rat glial cells were exposed to an 836.55 MHz, packet-modulated RF field at three power densities: 0.09, 0.9, and 9 mW/cm2, resulting in specific absorption rates (SARs) ranging from 0.15 to 59 muW/g. TEM-mode transmission-line cells were powered by a prototype time-domain multiple-access (TDMA) transmitter that conforms to the North American digital cellular telephone standard. One sham and one energized TEM cell were placed in standard incubators maintained at 37 degrees C and 5% CO2. DNA synthesis experiments at 0.59-59 muW/g SAR were performed on log-phase and serum-starved semiquiescent cultures after 24 h exposure. Cell growth at 0.15-15 muW/g SAR was determined by cell counts of log-phase cultures on days 0, 1, 5, 7, 9, 12, and 14 of a 2 week protocol. Results from the DNA synthesis assays differed for the two cell types. Sham-exposed and RF-exposed cultures of primary rat glial cells showed no significant differences for either log-phase or serum-starved condition. C6 glioma cells exposed to RF at 5.9 muW/g SAR (0.9 mW/cm2) exhibited small (20-40%) significant increases in 38% of [3H]thymidine incorporation experiments. Growth curves of sham and RF-exposed cultures showed no differences in either normal or transformed glial cells at any of the power densities tested. Cell doubling times of C6 glioma cells [sham (21.9 +/- 1.4 h) vs. field (22.7 +/- 3.2 h)] also demonstrated no significant differences that could be attributed to altered DNA synthesis rates. Under these conditions, this modulated RF field did not increase cell proliferation of normal or transformed cultures of glial origin.

(52) Stankiewicz W, Dąbrowski MP, Kubacki R, Sobiczewska E, Szmigielski S Immunotropic Influence of 900 MHz Microwave GSM Signal on Human Blood Immune Cells Activated in Vitro. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 25(1) 45-51, 2006.

In an earlier study we reported that Go phase peripheral blood mononulclear cells (PBMC) exposed to low-level (SAR = 0.18 W/kg) pulse-modulated 1300 MHz microwaves and subsequently cultured, demonstrate changed immune activity (Dabrowski et al., 2003). We investigated whether cultured immune cells induced into the active phases of cell cycle (G1, S) and then exposed to microwaves will also be sensitive to electromagnetic field. An anechoic chamber of our design containing a microplate with cultured cells and an antenna emitting microwaves (900 MHz simulated GSM signal, 27 V/m, SAR 0.024 W/kg) was placed inside the ASSAB incubator. The microcultures of PBMC exposed to microwaves demonstrated significantly higher response to mitogens and higher immunogenic activity of monocytes (LM index) than control cultures. LM index, described in detail elsewhere (Dabrowski et al., 2001), represents the monokine influence on lymphocyte mitogenic response. The results suggest that immune activity of responding lymphocytes and monocytes can be additionally intensified by 900 MHz microwaves.

(53) Stark KD, Krebs T, Altpeter E, Manz B, Griot C, Abelin T, Absence of

chronic effect of exposure to short-wave radio broadcast signal on

salivary melatonin concentrations in dairy cattle. J Pineal Res 22(4):171-176, 1997.

A pilot study was conducted to investigate the influence of electromagnetic

fields in the short-wave range (3-30 MHz) radio transmitter signals on salivary

melatonin concentration in dairy cattle. The hypothesis to be tested was

whether EMF exposure would lower salivary melatonin concentrations, and whether removal of the EMF source would be followed by higher concentration levels. For this pilot study, a controlled intervention trial was designed. Two commercial dairy herds at two farms were compared, one located at a distance of 500 m (exposed), the other at a distance of 4,000 m (unexposed) from the transmitter. At each farm, five cows were monitored with respect to their salivary melatonin concentrations over a period of ten consecutive days. Saliva samples were collected at two-hour intervals during the dark phase of the night. As an additional intervention, the short-wave transmitter was switched off during three of the ten days (off phase). The samples were analyzed using a radioimmunoassay. The average nightly field strength readings were 21-fold

greater on the exposed farm (1.59 mA/m) than on the control farm (0.076 mA/m).

The mean values of the two initial nights did not show a statistically significant difference between exposed and unexposed cows. Therefore, a chronic melatonin reduction effect seemed unlikely. However, on the first night of re-exposure after the transmitter had been off for three days, the difference in salivary melatonin concentration between the two farms (3.89 pg/ml, CI: 2.04, 7.41) was statistically significant, indicating a two- to seven-fold increase of melatonin concentration. Thus, a delayed acute effect of EMF on melatonin concentration cannot completely be excluded. However, results should be interpreted with caution and further trials are required in order to confirm the results.

(54) Tattersall JE, Scott IR, Wood SJ, Nettell JJ, Bevir MK, Wang Z, Somasiri NP, Chen X. Effects of low intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on electrical activity in rat hippocampal slices. Brain Res 904(1):43-53, 2001.

Slices of rat hippocampus were exposed to 700 MHz continuous wave radiofrequency (RF) fields (25.2-71.0 V m(-1), 5-15 min exposure) in a stripline waveguide. At low field intensities, the predominant effect on the electrically evoked field potential in CA1 was a potentiation of the amplitude of the population spike by up to 20%, but higher intensity fields could produce either increases or decreases of up to 120 and 80%, respectively, in the amplitude of the population spike. To eliminate the possibility of RF-induced artefacts due to the metal stimulating electrode, the effect of RF exposure on spontaneous epileptiform activity induced in CA3 by 4-aminopyridine (50-100 &mgr;M) was investigated. Exposure to RF fields (50.0 V m(-1)) reduced or abolished epileptiform bursting in 36% of slices tested. The maximum field intensity used in these experiments, 71.0 V m(-1), was calculated to produce a specific absorption rate (SAR) of between 0.0016 and 0.0044 W kg(-1) in the slices. Measurements with a Luxtron fibreoptic probe confirmed that there was no detectable temperature change (+/-0.1 degrees C) during a 15 min exposure to this field intensity. Furthermore, imposed temperature changes of up to 1 degrees C failed to mimic the effects of RF exposure. These results suggest that low-intensity RF fields can modulate the excitability of hippocampal tissue in vitro in the absence of gross thermal effects. The changes in excitability may be consistent with reported behavioural effects of RF fields.

(55) Vangelova K, Israel M, Mihaylov S. The effect of low level radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in operators during 24-hour shifts. Cent Eur J Public Health 10(1-2):24-28, 2002.

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of long term exposure to low level radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in satellite station operators during 24-hour shifts. Twelve male operators at a satellite station for TV communications and space research were studied during 24-hour shifts. Dosimetric evaluation of the exposure was carried out and showed low level exposure with specific absorption of 0.1127 A control group of 12 unexposed male operators with similar job task and the same shift system were studied, too. The 11-oxycorticosteroids (11-OCS), adrenaline and noradrenaline were followed by spectrofluorimetric methods on 3-hour intervals during the 24-hour shifts. The data were analyzed by tests for interindividual analysis, Cosinor analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant increase in the 24-hour excretion of 11-OCS and disorders in its circadian rhythm, manifested by increase in the mesor, decrease in the amplitude and shift in the acrophase were found in the exposed operators. The changes in the excretion rates of the catecholamines were significant and showed greater variability of both variables. The long term effect of the exposure to low-level RF EM radiation evoked pronounced stress reaction with changes in the circadian rhythm of 11-OCS and increased variability of catecholamines secretion. The possible health hazards associated with observed alteration in the stress system need to be clarified by identification of their significance and prognostic relevance.

(56) Velizarov, S, Raskmark, P, Kwee, S, The effects of radiofrequency fields on cell proliferation are non-thermal. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 48(1):177-180, 1999.

The number of reports on the effects induced by radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields and microwave (MW) radiation in various cellular systems is still increasing. Until now no satisfactory mechanism has been proposed to explain the biological effects of these fields. One of the current theories is that heat generation by RF/MW is the cause, in spite of the fact that a great number of studies under isothermal conditions have reported significant cellular changes after exposure to RF/MW. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate which effect MW radiation from these fields in combination with a significant change of temperature could have on cell proliferation. The experiments were performed on the same cell line, and with the same exposure system as in a previous work [S. Kwee, P. Raskmark, Changes in cell proliferation due to environmental non-ionizing radiation: 2. Microwave radiation, Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg., 44 (1998), pp. 251-255]. The field was generated by signal simulation of the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) of 960 MHz. Cell cultures, growing in microtiter plates, were exposed in a specially constructed chamber, a Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) cell. The Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) value for each cell well was calculated for this exposure system. However, in this study the cells were exposed to the field at a higher or lower temperature than the temperature in the field-free incubator i.e., the temperature in the TEM cell was either 39 or 35 +/- 0.1 degrees C. The corresponding sham experiments were performed under exactly the same experimental conditions. The results showed that there was a significant change in cell proliferation in the exposed cells in comparison to the non-exposed (control) cells at both temperatures. On the other hand, no significant change in proliferation rate was found in the sham-exposed cells at both temperatures. This shows that biological effects due to RF/MW cannot be attributed only to a change of temperature. Since the RF/MW induced changes were of the same order of magnitude at both temperatures and also comparable to our previous results under isothermal conditions at 37 degrees C, cellular stress caused by electromagnetic fields could initiate the changes in cell cycle reaction rates. It is widely accepted that certain classes of heat-shock proteins are involved in these stress reactions.

(57) Veyret B, Bouthet C, Deschaux P, de Seze R, Geffard M, Joussot-Dubien J, le Diraison M, Moreau JM, Caristan A, Antibody responses of mice exposed to low-power microwaves under combined, pulse-and-amplitude modulation. Bioelectromagnetics 12(1):47-56, 1991.

Irradiation by pulsed microwaves (9.4 GHz, 1 microsecond pulses at 1,000/s), both with and without concurrent amplitude modulation (AM) by a sinusoid at discrete frequencies between 14 and 41 MHz, was assessed for effects on the immune system of Balb/C mice. The mice were immunized either by sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or by glutaric-anhydride conjugated bovine serum albumin (GA-BSA), then exposed to the microwaves at a low rms power density (30 microW/cm2; whole-body-averaged SAR approximately 0.015 W/kg). Sham exposure or microwave irradiation took place during each of five contiguous days, 10 h/day. The antibody response was evaluated by the plaque-forming cell assay (SRBC experiment) or by the titration of IgM and IgG antibodies (GA-BSA experiment). In the absence of AM, the pulsed field did not greatly alter immune responsiveness. In contrast, exposure to the field under the combined-modulation condition resulted in significant, AM-frequency-dependent augmentation or weakening of immune responses.

(58) Vian A, Roux D, Girard S, Bonnet P, Paladian F, Davies E, Ledoigt G. Microwave irradiation affects gene expression in plants. Plant Signal Behav. 1(2):67-70, 2006.

The physiological impact of nonionizing radiation has long been considered negligible. However, here we use a carefully calibrated stimulation system that mimics the characteristics (isotropy and homogeneity) of electromagnetic fields present in the environment to measure changes in a molecular marker (mRNA encoding the stress-related bZIP transcription factor), and show that low amplitude, short duration, 900 MHz EMF evokes the accumulation of this mRNA. Accumulation is rapid (peaking 5-15 min after stimulation) and strong (3.5-fold), and is similar to that evoked by mechanical stimulations.

(59) Wolke S, Neibig U, Elsner R, Gollnick F, Meyer R, Calcium homeostasis of isolated heart muscle cells exposed to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics 17(2):144-153, 1996.

The intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) of isolated ventricular cardiac myocytes of the guinea pig was measured during the application of

pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields. The high-frequency fields were

applied in a transverse electromagnetic cell designed to allow microscopic

observation of the myocytes during the presence of the high-frequency fields.

The [Ca(2+)]i was measured as fura-2 fluorescence by means of digital image

analysis. Both the carrier frequency and the square-wave pulse-modulation

pattern were varied during the experiments (carrier frequencies: 900, 1,300,

and 1,800 MHz pulse modulated at 217Hz with 14 percent duty cycle; pulsation

pattern at 900 MHz: continuous wave, 16 Hz, and 50 Hz modulation with 50

percent duty cycle and 30 kHz modulation with 80 percent duty cycle). The mean

specific absorption rate (SAR) values in the solution were within one order of

magnitude of 1 mW/kg. They varied depending on the applied carrier frequency

and pulse pattern. The experiments were designed in three phases: 500 s of sham exposure, followed by 500 s of field exposure, then chemical stimulation

without field. The chemical stimulation (K+ -depolarization) indicated the

viability of the cells. The K+ depolarization yielded a significant increase in

[Ca(2+)]i. Significant differences between sham exposure and high-frequency

field exposure were not found except when a very small but statistically

significant difference was detected in the case of 900 MHz/50 Hz. However, this

small difference was not regarded as a relevant effect of the exposure.

(60) Yurekli AI, Ozkan M, Kalkan T, Saybasili H, Tuncel H, Atukeren P, Gumustas K, Seker S. GSM Base Station Electromagnetic Radiation and Oxidative Stress in Rats. Electromagn Biol Med. 25(3):177-188, 2006.

The ever increasing use of cellular phones and the increasing number of associated base stations are becoming a widespread source of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation. Some biological effects are likely to occur even at low-level EM fields. In this study, a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell was used as an exposure environment for plane wave conditions of far-field free space EM field propagation at the GSM base transceiver station (BTS) frequency of 945 MHz, and effects on oxidative stress in rats were investigated. When EM fields at a power density of 3.67 W/m2 (specific absorption rate = 11.3 mW/kg), which is well below current exposure limits, were applied, MDA (malondialdehyde) level was found to increase and GSH (reduced glutathione) concentration was found to decrease significantly (p < 0.0001). Additionally, there was a less significant (p = 0.0190) increase in SOD (superoxide dismutase).